We had this discussion go around the world at work recently after the article appeared in a recent online trade rag. Basically the title was “The last days of Unix – after a 30-year run, once dominant server OS gets 86ed by x86es”, suggesting that the UNIX market was dead. That something else was replacing it. It spawned a great bit of discussion, primarily because it was misleading, while at the same time technically true.
The market share for servers in the data center for Commercial Unix vendors has been declining for some time.
The headline of the article made it sound like what the world of Unix developers have been doing for years was somehow fated for oblivion. But we must remember that what was created by creating UNIX in the first place was more about the concept of an operating system written in a language that was portable across hardware platforms. Prior to UNIX all the hardware drivers were written in low level code like assembly language or proprietary languages that were hardware dependent.
But whether is it UNIX or a system very much like UNIX (aka Linux) it is easy to switch from being a UNIX developer to a Linux developer – therefore the concept, the people and the skills live on through the metamorphosis.
Make no mistake – We have seen this before, and we will likely see it all again. Remember in the early days of Unix there was UNIX – but there were distributions of UNIX – System V and BSD. They diverged and merged ideas and then corporate vendors made versions to run on their hardware – thus the beginning of the commercial UNIX brands.
At one point there were over 400 different flavors of Unix. During this time of everyone writing their own Unix, based on the two or three main sources, we started to see GNU tools being developed to make applications available for free, then a fully-fledged FREE “Unix-Like” OS called Linux. In the beginning Linux meant “Linux is not Unix”. But it was built on the same concepts.
Now however, we basically see a similar pattern of companies creating their own distributions of Linux – Fedora, Red Hat, Centos, Slackware, Debian, Ubuntu, Mint, Unbreakable, etc, etc, etc – each with a similar kernel, slightly different in the stream of time, but with their own features – new features that compete with commercial products and commercial add-ons for Linux.
It’s all very similar. But it is all based on the same principle that started Unix. An OS written in a language that was portable to any hardware – hardware independence is what UNIX was all about.
The UNIX philosophy, the skills needed to be productive in the computer field, and the people behind the scenes are not going away – at least not yet – that is a topic for another post.
However, on the truthful side, Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, and similar commercial UNIX versions are losing market share.
When it comes to data centers, 95% of the jobs that I get contacted about are Linux Engineering jobs. I have many more years of ‘Unix’ experience than Linux, but shortly after Oracle bought Sun, the final item needed to turn the tides happened. Oracle on Linux was a reality. Then it was like dominoes – Everyone in a mad rush to convert the data center to Linux and remove “Legacy” Unix systems. It will take a few more years for the conversion to happen, but it has been happening all across corporate America and likely the world for some time.
In regards to UNIX as a whole, I thought it fair to mention what UNIX is today:
From Wikipedia related to the current definition of “UNIX” and the Trademark holder – The Open Group:
“The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems to qualify for the name ‘Unix’. The core specifications of the SUS are developed and maintained by the Austin Group, which is a joint working group of IEEE, ISO JTC 1 SC22 and The Open Group.”
As far as a non-datacenter version of UNIX:
OS X is Unix:
“Apple’s OS X is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product, first becoming registered with Mac OS X v10.5 ‘Leopard’ on October 26, 2007 (when run on Intel processors). ‘X/Open Brand’ is awarded to software which demonstrates compliance with an X/Open specification, in this case ‘UNIX 03’.”
I would not call OS X a server OS though I think it is used on servers – I would not expect Apple to take over the data center – ever.
Other Unix’s would be registered if it was not so expensive.
It may be possible at some point for Linux to be considered Unix!
Again, from Wikipedia (it’s online, it must be true)
“Linux aims to be compliant, but as certification is expensive, no Linux distribution has been registered as SUS compliant.
The Linux Standard Base was formed in 2001 as an attempt to standardize the internal structures of Linux-based systems for increased compatibility. It is based on, and also extends in several areas, the POSIX specifications, the Single UNIX Specification and other open standards. It is de facto accepted and followed by many Linux distributions.”